The Muslim-Arab Conquest of Iran in 636
The last Persian King was Yazdgerd III and he was the 29th and last king of the Sassanian dynasty of Iran. His father was Shahryar, whose mother was Miriam, the daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Maurice.Yazdgerd III ascended to the throne in 632 and lost it to the Muslim Arabs at the Battle of al-Qadisiyya in 636.With that battle the Muslims conquered the country.
Article about how maybe the First Great Writer of the Farsi-Iranian Language,Firdausi,was a Secret Apostate of Islam
Also how Two Famous Iranian Scientists,Al-Razi and Omar Khayyam, of the Middle Ages were Definitely Apostates of Islam
Pirouz Nahavandi,the man who assasinated Caliph Omar out of Indignation
Pirouz Nahavandi (or Piruzan),a Persian name,also known as Abu-Luluah al-Nahawandi in Arabic, was a Persian Zoroastrian soldier who served under the commander of the Iranian army Rostam Farrokhzad, but was captured in the battle of Al-Qadisiyyah in 636 when the Persians were defeated by the Arab-Muslim army of Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab on the western bank of the Euphrates River. After he was brought to Arabia as a prisoner, he managed to assassinate Omar in 644.
Not much is known about Piruz, except that judging by his name, he was probably born in Nahavand, Iran, and was a Zoroastrian who became a Muslim not out of conviction but because Iran was conquered by the Muslims,he had become a slave of the Muslims.
His Life as a Slave and why he killed Caliph Omar
Besides being a soldier Pirouz was a skilled workman, carpenter and artisan, and his owner allowed him to live in his own household in the city of Medina,then the capital of Islam,with the caliph also living there.After a while he joined the Arab-Muslim army and was able to get near Caliph Omar,the man who had conquered his country,and assasinate him.
One story is the assasination was because of a dispute Pirouz had had with his owner and master about the amount of money he had to give to his master from what he earned as a skilled workman.Omar was in favor of the owner and that was why he was killed.But even that account has it that Pirouz,then in Medina,noticed that there were Persian children slaves in the city. Seeing them, Piroz would say, “You have been enslaved at such a tender age. This Omar has eaten my heart. I will take his heart out“. He made for himself a dagger with a very sharp edge and smeared it with poison and stabbed him in the Medina mosque.
Slavery is allowed in the Koran
There is nothing that says it was limited to Muhammad’s time and all the first four caliphs of Islam were friends and even related to Muhammad.They were Abu Bekr,Omar,Othman and Ali,and they all approved of slavery.The Koran says to free slaves but it makes it conditional on if the master thinks the slave deserves it.
“And let those who find not the means to marry be abstinent till God enriches them of His bounty.
Those your right hands own (Note:slaves) who seek emancipation, contract with them accordingly, if you know some good in them; and give them of the wealth of God that He has given you. And constrain not your slave-girls to prostitution, if they desire to live in chastity, that you may seek the chance goods of the present life. Whosoever constrains them, surely God, after their being constrained, is All-forgiving, All-compassionate.”
It is also made implicit in this verse:
“O Prophet, say to the captives (Note:people made slaves in war) in your hands: “If God knows of any good in your hearts He will give you better than what has been taken from you (Note:their freedom had been taken away), and He will forgive you; surely God is All-forgiving, All-compassionate.” ”
Here are all the Koran verses on slavery
Pirouz Nahavandi’s Tomb is in Iran
It is located on the road from Kashan to Fins, constructed in an 11th century Persian architectural style, consisting of a courtyard, porch and conical dome decorated with turquoise coloured tiles, and painted ceilings.The original date of its construction is unknown, but in the second-half of the fourteen century it was fully restored and a new tombstone was placed over his grave.Controversy was caused recently when the International Union for Muslim Scholars called for the tomb to be destroyed, a request which was not well received by Iranians, even among those who support the Islamic Republic.
A Natonal Hero for Many Iranians,whether Religious or Not
Pirouz Nahavandi is regarded:
1.By many non-religious Iranians as a National Hero because he killed the man who conquered their country.
2.The vast majority of Iranians are,officially at least,Shia Muslims.For many of them Pirouz Nahavandi is acceptable for two very specific reasons:
1.One being that for them Caliph Omar was a bad,evil man,a usurper,illegitimate ruler.The Shias have differnent religious ideas from the Sunnis,who are 90% of Muslims.
2.The other is that Omar forbade temporary marriage,called muta.
The Rejection of the First Three Caliphs of Islam:
Shias consider all 3 to have been nothing but usurpers,interlopers, while Sunnis call them “the rightly-guided caliphs”.Shias say Ali,the son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad,married to Fatima,Muhammad’s daughter,and who was finally elected as the 4th caliph,should have been elected after Muhammad’s death from the beginning.He ruled from 656-661,and was later assasinated.
After Muhammad died in 632 he was succeeded by:
a)Abu Bekr,his father-in-law (ruled 632-634)
b)Omar (one of Muhammad’s generals)(ruled 634-644,assasinated)
c)Othman(another of Muhammad’s companions)(ruled 644-656,assasinated)
Caliph Omar prohibited Temporary Marriage,or Muta
It appears in a Sunni hadith,or saying/doing of Muhammad or his companions
The Koranic Verse by which Temporary Marriage is Justified by the Shias
“And all married women (are forbidden to you)(Note:forbidden for sex) save those who your right hands possess(Note:except for your slave women)
It is a decree of Allah for you. Lawful to you are all beyond those mentioned, so that you seek them with your wealth in honest wedlock, not debauchery.
And those of who you seek content give to them their portions as a duty(Note:give them their dowry)
And there is no sin for you in what you do by mutual agreement after the duty. Lo! Allah is ever Knower, Wise.”
Sunnis and Shias Agree
Both agree that Muhammad had authorized temporary marriage but the Sunnis believe he later abolished it and the Shias say no,that it was illegally abolished by Omar,the 3rd caliph of Islam,and friend and general of Muhammad.
They also disagree on the meaning of chapter 4:24,the Sunnis saying it refers to a permanent marriage and the Shias say it is a temporary one.